Abalam is required to prevent HIV-1infection treatment. Abalam tablets are hostile to retroviral pharmaceutical, which containsfunctioning substances like abacavir and lamivudine. Abacavir belongs to nucleoside analogue of HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor, also an analogue of guanosine. Lamivudine is a inhibitor of reverse transcriptase enzyme, associates of Zalcitabine. Both abacavir and lamivudine are none relieving the contamination; thereby it ready to lessen the movement of HIV disease to AIDS.
Lamivudine & Abacavir
300mg & 600mg
Indication of Abalam
The drug Abalam is used in patients for the treatment of HIV-1 infections.
Mechanism of Abalam
Lamivudine is one of the active molecule present in Abalam tablets. Lamivudine is involved as nucleoside analogue. Lamivudine is converted into dynamic 5' triphosphate metabolite intracellularly by adding phosphate group (lamivudine triphosphate 3TC-TP. This effective metabolite containsa barrier of switch transcriptase through chain end after addition of nucleotide simple.
Abacavir is belongs to carboxylic synthetic nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which is active opposite to HIV infection. Abacavir is added a phosphate group into carbovir triphosphate (deoxyguanosine 5'triphosphate) dGTP a functioning metabolite This hostile metabolite stops the activity of reverse transcriptase by oppose with dGTP and fixed into viral DNA. The development of viral DNA gets changed by inclusion of nucleotide which cause absence of OH particle. For the development of 5' to 3' phosphodiester linkage, an OH atom is necessary. The 3’ phosphodiester linkage formation oversees chain stretching which get inhibited.
The drug Abalam maximum absorbed after administration. Bioavailability of both Lamivudine 87% & abacavir 83% respectively.
The human plasma protein binding nature of lamivudine is very low. Bounds to human plasma protein of Abacavir is almost 50%.
Abacavir metabolized by using alcohol dehydrogenase &glucuronic transferees’ enzymes. The metabolism of Lamivudine is highly metabolized to trans-sulfoxide and sulfotransferases is essential for biotransformation of lamivudine.
The abacavir systemic clearance value is 0.80L/hr/kg plus or minus 0.24L/hr/kg & lamivudine is 0.33 plus or minus of 0.06L/hr/kg. The renal clearance of abacavir is 0.007 plus or minus to 0.0008L/h/kg; lamivudine is 0.22 plus or minus to 0.06L/h/kg. Half-life period of Abalam tablets are; Abacavir: 1.45 plus or minus to 0.32 hours. Lamivudine: 5 to 7 hours
Abalam Dosage and administration
Prior to initiate the treatment with Abalam tablets, patient should be cover up for HLA-B*5701 allele.
The prescribed dose of Abalam tablets is one tablet should be administered as a single dose.
The drug will be concomitant use with other anti-retroviral drugs.
The dosage adjustment should not be recommended; Abalam is a type of fixed dose combination, dosage adjustment should not be suggested in case of; Patients having creatinine clearance < 50ml/minPatient with mild liver impairment condition Administered Abalam tablets with or without food. It should be administer with whole of water. Abalam should not be chew, crush or broke.
The over dosage of Abalam is treated by; Analyze the manifestation along with over dosage of Abalam tablets Providing supportive treatment for the patients
Abalam caused side effects
Severe hypersensitivity or sometimes causes fatal related to abacavir Fatigue, Malaise, Dizziness, Vertigo, Nausea, Diarrhea, Rash, Pyrexia, Insomnia, Depression, Headache or migraine, Abdominal pain, Abnormal dreams, Anxiety
Pancreatitis, Myocardial infarction, Stevens Johnson’s syndrome, Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Fat redistribution, Stomatitis, Weakness, Aplastic anemia, Lymphadenopathy, Splenomegaly, Lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis, Rhabdomyolysis, Seizures, Wheezing, Alopecia, Erythema multiforme
Immune reconstitution syndrome
Discontinue the treatment, If this fatal case occurs.
Occurrence of lamivudine resistance may happen
The efficacy of lamivudine for HIV/HBV co infected patients has not been investigated. hepatitis B infection risk variations related with protection from lamivudine has additionally been accounted for in HIV-1-contaminated subjects who have gotten lamivudine-containing antiretroviral regimens within the sight of simultaneous disease with hepatitis B infection.
Lactic acidosis, hepatic steatosis
These fatal cases are mainly occurred in patients getting anti-retroviral treatment as single therapy or in combinations. Dropping the treatment for reducing this kind of adverse.
Aggravation of hepatitis B
This patient who are affected by HIV/HBV co infection will occur this condition. Check the patient’s liver functions very closely for inhibition this fatal case. In serious condition, continue the anti-hepatitis drugs.
Patient has any risk of CVS disorders should be investigate prior to starting the treatment. In severe condition, stop the therapy.
This may cause to obesity mostly occurred in women. To overcome the problem patient should be treated with alternative measures and in serious condition discontinue the treatment.