ACYCLOVIR 400MG

Zovirax 400mg belongs to group of Acycloguanosine and show the activity of antiviral medication. Zovirax 400mg is a class of nucleoside analogs (group of synthetic drugs), will prevent the symptoms of infection consist of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), this infection will cause herpes simplex or type of herpes virus VZV (varicella-Zoster virus) and hence causes shingles and chickenpox. Zovirax 400mg is a prescription drugs administrated orally which is used under the supervision of medical practioners. Zovirax 400mg is used with combination of other medications.

Acyclovir

400mg

Pack of 10x5 tablets





Zovirax indicated for

Zovirax 400mg Tablets are used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections of the skin and mucous membranes including initial and recurrent genital herpes (excluding neonatal HSV and severe HSV infections in immunocompromised children). Zovirax 400mg Tablets are used for the suppression (prevention of recurrences) of recurrent herpes simplex infections in immunocompetent patients.

Zovirax 400mg Tablets are used for the prophylaxis of herpes simplex infections in immunocompromised patients. Zovirax 400mg Tablets are used for the treatment of varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster (shingles) infections.

MECHANISM OF ACTION OF Zovirax 400mg

Acyclovir belongs to synthetic purine nucleoside analogue with in vitro and in vivo inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1), 2 (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The inhibitory activity of acyclovir is highly selective due to its affinity for the enzyme thymidine kinase (TK) encoded by HSV and VZV.

This viral enzyme changes acyclovir into acyclovir monophosphate, a nucleotide analogue. The monophosphate is further converted into diphosphate by cellular guanylate kinase and into triphosphate by several cellular enzymes. In vitro, acyclovir triphosphate stops replication of herpes viral DNA. This is accomplished in 3 ways:

1) competitive prevention of viral DNA polymerase,
2) fusion into and termination of the growing viral DNA chain,
3) inactivation of the viral DNA polymerase.

The greater antiviral activity of acyclovir against HSV compared with VZV is due to its more efficient phosphorylation by the viral TK.



ADME properties


poorly water soluble, peak plasma concentration after 1-2 hours and bioavailability 15-30%.

Plasma protein binding is ranging between 9 to 33%.

Half-life based according to age group neonates have t1/2 4 hours, children’s have 2-3 hours and for adults t1/2 3 hours.

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acyclovir-400mg

Ingredients Acyclovir
Strength 400mg
Pack Pack of 10x5 tablets
Rating

Herpes simplex- mucocutaneous/ immunocompetent host

For adult dose:
200mg orally every 4 hours or 5 times a day for 10 days. For 5 to 10 days 400mg orally 3 times a day is given.

For pediatric dose:
less than 12 years 40 to 80mg/kg/day orally, it can be divided into 3 to 4 times a day, max 5 to 10 days Max dose up to 1000mg/day 12yrs or older: 200mg orally 5 times a day every 4 hours 400mg orally 3 times a day Duration: 7 – 10 days

Herpes Zoster

For adult dose:
800mg orally every 4 hours (5 times a day) for 7 to 10 days Immunocompromised host:10 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 7 days Treatment Duration 7 to 14-day course (oral plus IV)

For pediatric dose:
Immunocompetent Host: -Parenteral: < 1 year: 10 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days 1 year or older: 500 mg/m2 IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days Oral: 12 years or older: 800 mg orally 5 times a day for 5 to 7 days Immunocompromised Host: 10 mg/kg IV every 8 hours for 7 to 10 days

Herpes simplex - mucocutaneous/ immunocompromised host

For adult dose:
400mg orally 3 times a day Duration:up to 5 to 10 days Severe disease: 5mg/kg IV every 8 hours Episodic treatment: 400mg orally 3 times a day up to 5 to 14 days

For pediatric dose:
<12 years: 10 mg/kg IV for every 8 hours up to 7 days 12 years or older: 5 mg/kg IV for every 8 hours up to 7 days continues HIV infection Mild Symptomatic Gingivostomatitis:20 mg/kg orally 4 times a day for 7 to 10 days ; Maximum dose: 400 mg Moderate to Severe Gingivostomatitis:5 to 10 mg/kg IV 3 times a day

Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

For adult dose:
10mg/kg IV for every 8 hours Duration: 10days and center for disease control and prevention recommends 21 days

For pediatric dose:
3 months to 12 years old: IV 10 to 20 mg/kg for every 8 hours 12 years or older: 10mg/kg IV every 8 hours Duration: 10days and center for disease control and prevention recommends 21 days

Over dosage

Zovirax 400mg involving ingestion of 100 capsules (20g) have been reported has agitation, coma, seizures and lethargy

Common side effects

Weakness Vomiting Nausea Diarrhea Headache

Serious side effects

Unusal changes in mood like aggressive behavior, confusion, speaking trouble, hallucinations, seizures, Coma. Reduced RBC and Platelets like fatigue Liver problems Myalgia Skin reaction like hair loss, rash, breaking or loosening of skin, hives Changes in your vision Kidney failure like flank pain, bloody urine

PRECAUTION

  • Zovirax 400mg cause allgeric reaction like breathing trouble, swelling of throat or tongue, rash, hives. Inform your doctor if symptoms occurs.
  • Discuss with your consultant about planning to become pregnant or pregnancy because drug can be used if possible benefits clarify possible risk to the patients.
  • Discuss with doctor If you had kidney disease because the excretion of drug will not perform well, Zovirax 400mg will decrease the kidney function.

Drug interaction of Zovirax

  • When concomitant with probenecid will decrease tubular secretion of acyclovir and rise the blood plasma and half- life of acyclovir.
  • Concomitant use with nephrotoxic drugs may cause increase the risk in renal function
  • Interact with immunostimulators will enhancing effects of acyclovir

CONTRAINDICATION

Zovirax 400mg is contraindicated in patients who causes hypersensitivity to acyclovir or valacyclovir.



Category B: In animal studies it has not shown risk to the fetus and in human no enough studies carried out in pregnant women to describe the risk to the fetus. Drug used only if possible benefits clarify possible risk to the patients.

Mother should have decided whether to stop medication or breastfeeding because Zovirax 400mg may pass into breast milk and cause adverse reaction to the infants who is feeding.

Store at 15°C to 25°C Keep away from light Avoid storing of medicine in moist or damp areas

If dose missed, then immediately administer the medicine as you remember. If next dose time reaches swap the missed dose and continue the regular schedule. avoid taking double dose at a time. Please consult the doctor for further details.

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