Gemcitabine sold under the brand name Citafine and it is a chemotherapy medication required to treat several types of cancer.
Citafine 1gm administered into a vein by slow injection.
Citafine 1gm is a prescription drug which is used under the supervision of medical oncologist
Citafine 1gm is indicated for the treatment of following conditions :
• Pancreas cancer
• Non-small cell lung cancer
• Bladder cancer
• Soft-tissue sarcoma
• Metastatic breast cancer
• Ovarian cancer
Mechanism of action
Antimetabolites inhibits the DNA production. This discontinue cell growth and division, reporting in the reducing or blocking of cancer growth. Since cancer cells, in general, replicate faster and with less error-correcting than healthy cells, cancer cells are more conscious to this damage.
Gemcitabine kills cancer cells go through DNA synthesis. It interferes with ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme important to DNA combination. Because cells cannot duplicate their DNA, they cannot properly multiply, and thus die.
By infusion length the volume of distribution is increased Vd: 50 L/m2
Transformed through nucleoside kinases to two active metabolites such as gemcitabine diphosphate and gemcitabine triphosphate
The drug is excreted through urine (92-98%) and Half-life of Citafine is 1.7-19.4 hr
Pancreatic cancer :
The recommended dose is 1000mg/m2 IV infusion over 30 min once weekly x 7 weeks; rest 1 week And the dose 1000mg/m2IV once weekly for 3 weeks of each 28-day cycle Non-small cell lung cancer :
The recommended dose is 1000mg/m2IV infusion over 30 minutes on days 1,8 and 15 of each 28-day cycle or The recommended dose is 1250 mg/m2IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle Administer cisplatin 100mg/m2 IV after gemcitabine on day 1 Breast cancer :
The recommended dose is 1250 mg/m2IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle Dose with paclitaxel 175mg/m2 on day 1 as a 3-hr infusion before gemcitabine Ovarian cancer :
The recommended dose is 1000 mg/m2IV over 30 minutes on days 1 and 8 of each 21-day cycle. Dose with carboplatin AUC 4 on day 1 after gemcitabine
Very common side effects :
• Allergic skin rash or itching.
• Cold or flu-like symptoms.
• Retention of fluid in the body
• Abnormal results in liver function tests.
• blood in the urine or protein presence
Common side effects :
• Loss of appetite.
• Mouth ulcers.
• Diarrhoea or constipation.
• Blocked or runny nose.
• Back pain.
• Aching muscles (myalgia).
• Chills and fever.
While treatment with Citafine 1gm will causes Myelosuppression.
When Citafine 1gm in combination with carboplatin or paclitaxel: patients should have ANC >1.5 x 10^6/mL and platelet count >10^8/mL prior to each cycle
With Citafine 1gm treatment Capillary leak syndrome resulted with serious consequences; discontinue if symptoms occur
Haemolytic uremic syndrome resulted, containing fatalities; permanently stop treatment in patients with HUS or serious kidney impairment; Kidney failure may not be reversible even with stop of therapy
Drug-induced liver injury resulted, involving liver failure and death; assess hepatic function before to initiation of therapy and periodically during treatment; stop drug in patients which develop severe liver injury